Advancing Research

The Goualougo Triangle Ape Project strives to maintain an international reputation of rigorous field work, as well as academic excellence. Success within the conservation community is recognized via the stability of ape populations within the areas surveyed, and successful application of our research findings to the promote the enhanced protection of wildlife throughout the region. We also continuously search for training opportunities for our national staff to develop their professional skills and contribute to international conservation efforts. The Goualougo Triangle Ape Project’s standard for academic excellence is publication of research findings in peer-reviewed journals and other prestigious publication venues.

Below is a list of our research publications.

  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C. In press. African great ape conservation in the age of industrialized timber. In Ape Conservation and Welfare Report: Extractive Industries. Cambridge University Press.
  • Sanz, C., Deblauwe, I., Tagg, N., Morgan, D. In press. Insect prey characteristics affecting regional variation in chimpanzee tool use. Journal of Human Evolution.
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Greer, D., Rayden, T., Maisels, F., Williamson, E. A. 2013. Great Apes and FSC: Implementing ‘Ape Friendly’ Practices in Central Africa’s Logging Concessions. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 36 pp. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Call, J., Boesch, C. 2013. Tool Use in Animals: Cognition and Ecology. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 322 pp. http://www.cambridge.org/us/knowledge/isbn/item7075736/?site_locale=en_US
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D. 2013. The social context of chimpanzee tool use. In C. Sanz, J. Call, C. Boesch (Eds.), Tool Use in Animals: Cognition and Ecology. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 161-175. Download PDF
  • Byrne, R., Sanz, C., Morgan, D. 2013. Chimpanzees plan their tool use. In C. Sanz, J. Call, C. Boesch (Eds.), Tool Use in Animals: Cognition and Ecology. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 48-63. Download PDF
  • Meulman, E. J. M., Sanz, C. M., Visalberghi, E., van Schaik, C. P. 2012.The role of terrestriality in promoting primate technology. Evolutionary Anthropology 21(2): 58-68. Download PDF
  • Junker, J., Blake, S., Boesch, C., Campbell, G., Dunn, A., du Toit, L., Duvall, C., Ekobo, A., Etoga, G., Galat-Luong, A., Gamys, J., Ganas-Swaray, J., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Granier, N., Greengrass, E., Hart, J., Head, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T. C., Huijbregts, B., Imong, I. S., Kuempel, N., Lahm, S., Lindsell, J., Maisels, F., McLennan, M., Martinez, L., Morgan, B., Morgan, D., Mulindahabi, F., Mundry, R., N’Goran, K. P., Normand, E., Ntongho, A., Okon, D. T., Petre, C., Plumptre, A., Rainey, H., Regnaut, S., Sanz, C., Stokes, E., Tondossama, A., Tranquilli, S., Sunderland-Groves, J., Walsh, P., Warren, Y., Williamson, E. A., Kuehl, H. S. 2012. Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions forAfrican great apes. Diversity and Distributions 18: 1077-1091. Download PDF
  • Vallo, P., Petrželková, K. J., Profousová, I., Petrášová, J., Pomajbíková, K., Leendertz, F., Hashimoto, C., Simmons, N., Babweteera, F., Machanda, Z., Piel, A., Robbins, M., Boesch, C., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Sommer, V., Furuichi, T., Fujita, S., Matsuzawa, T., Kaur, T., Huffman, M. A., Modrý, D. 2012. Molecular diversity of entodiniomorphid ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and evaluation of its coevolution with chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148: 525-533. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D.2011. Elemental variation in the termite fishing of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biology Letters 7(4): 634-637. Sanz, Morgan 2011 Elemental variation in the termite fishing of wild chimpanzees.pdf
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D. 2011. Discovering chimpanzee traditions. In M. Robbins, C. Boesch (Eds.), Among the Apes: Stories from the Field. University of California Press. Pp. 88-100. http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520274594
  • Sanz, C., Schöning, C. Morgan, D. 2010. Chimpanzees prey on army ants with specialized tool set. American Journal of Primatology 71:1–8.
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D. 2010. Complexity of chimpanzee tool using behaviors. In E. V. Lonsdorf, S. R. Ross, T. Matsuzawa (eds.), The Mind of the Chimpanzee: Ecological and Experimental Perspectives. University of Chicago Press. Pp. 127-140. Download PDF
  • Liu, W., Li, Y., Learn, G., Rudicell, R., Robertson, J., Ndjango, J., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Locatelli, S., Gonder, M., Kranzusch, P., Walsh, P., Delaporte, E., Mpoudi-Ngolle, E., Georgiev, A., Muller, M., Shaw, G. , Peeters, M., Sharp, P., Rayner, J. C., Hahn, B. H. 2010. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).Nature 467: 420-425. Download PDF
  • Blinkova, O., Victoria, J., Li, Y. Y., Keele, B. F., Sanz, C., Ndjango, J. B. N., Peeters, M., Travis, D., Lonsdorf, E. V., Wilson, M. L., Pusey, A. E., Hahn, B. H. Delwart, E. L. 2010. Novel circular DNA viruses in stool samples of wild-living chimpanzees. Journal of General Virology 91: 74-86. Download PDF
  • Neel, C., Etienne, L., Li, Y. Y., Takehisa, J., Rudicell, R. S., Bass, I. N., Moudindo, J., Mebenga, A., Esteban, A., Van Heuverswyn, F., Liegeois, F., Kranzusch, P. J., Walsh, P. D., Sanz, C. M., Morgan, D. B., Ndjango, J. B. N., Plantier, J. C., Locatelli, S., Gonder, M. K., Leendertz, F. H., Boesch, C., Todd, A., Delaporte, E., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Hahn, B. H. Peeters, M. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infection in wild-living gorillas. Journal of Virology 84(3): 1464-1476. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Call, J., Morgan, D. 2009. Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biology Letters 5: 293-296. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D.2009. Flexible and persistent tool-using strategies in honey-gathering by wild chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 30: 411-427. Download PDF
  • Gillespie, T. R., Morgan, D., Deutsch, J. C., Kuhlenschmidt, M., Salzer, J. S., Cameron, K., Reed, T., Sanz, C. 2009. A legacy of low-impact logging does not elevate prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa in free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: Logging and parasitism in African apes. EcoHealth6: 557-564. Download PDF
  • Devos, C., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Onononga, J. R., Laporte, N., Huynen, M. C. 2008. Comparing ape densities in Northern Congo: Surveys of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in the Ndoki and Odzala Regions. American Journal of Primatology 70: 1-13. Download PDF
  • Liu, W., Worobey, M., Li1, Y., Keele, B. F., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Guo1, Y., Goepfert, P. A., Santiago, M. L., Ndjango, J. N., Neel, C., Clifford, S. L., Sanz, C., Kamenya, S., Wilson, M. L., Pusey, A. E., Gross-Camp, N., Boesch, C., Smith, V., Zamma, K., Huffman, M. A., Mitani, J. C., Watts, D. P., Peeters, M., Shaw, G. M., Switzer, W. M., Sharp, P. M., Hahn, B. H. 2008. Molecular ecology and natural history of Simian Foamy Virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees. PLoS Pathogens 4(7): e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000097 Download PDF 
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C. 2007. Best Practice Guidelines for Reducing the Impact of Commercial Logging on Wild Apes in West Equatorial Africa. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG). 32 pp. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D. 2007. Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Journal of Human Evolution 52 (4): 420-433. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Strindberg, S., Onononga, J. R. 2007. Distinguishing between the nests of sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 263-272. Download PDF
  • Walsh, P. D., Breuer, T., Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Doran-Sheehy, D. 2007. Potential for ebola transmission between gorilla and chimpanzee social groups. American Naturalist 169(5): 684-689. Download PDF
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Onononga, J.R., Strindberg, S. 2006. Ape abundance and habitat use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 27(1): 147-179. Download PDF
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C. 2006. Chimpanzee feeding ecology and comparisons with sympatric gorillas in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. Primate Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates: Ecological, Physiological, and Behavioural Aspects, edited by G. Hohmann, M. Robbins, and C. Boesch, pp. 97-122. Download PDF
  • Tutin, C. E. G., Stokes, E., Boesch, C., Walsh, P., Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Blake, S., Kormos, R. 2005. Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Gorillas and Chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa. Conservation International. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Gulick, S. 2004. New Insights into chimpanzees, tools, and termites from the Congo Basin. American Naturalist 164: 567-581. Download PDF
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C. 2003. Naive encounters with chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 24(2): 369-381. Download PDF

Available in French

  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Greer, D., Rayden, T., Maisels, F., Williamson, E. A. 2013. Great Apes and FSC: Implementing ‘Ape Friendly’ Practices in Central Africa’s Logging Concessions. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 36 pp. Morgan, Sanz et al 2013 Great apes and FSC – FRENCH.pdf
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C. 2007. Best Practice Guidelines for Reducing the Impact of Commercial Logging on Wild Apes in West Equatorial Africa. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG). 32 pp. Download PDF
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Onononga, J.R., Strindberg, S. 2006. Ape abundance and habitat use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 27(1): 147-179. Download PDF
  • Tutin, C. E. G., Stokes, E., Boesch, C., Walsh, P., Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Blake, S., Kormos, R. 2005. Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Gorillas and Chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa. Conservation International. Download PDF
  • Sanz, C., Morgan, D., Gulick, S. 2004. New insights into chimpanzees, tools, and termites from the Congo Basin. American Naturalist 164: 567-581. Download PDF
  • Morgan, D., Sanz, C. 2003. Naive encounters with chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 24(2): 369-381. Download PDF